Content - Tropical Tropopause, Troposphere, Stratosphere Climatologies

Radiosonde-Derived Tropical Tropopause, Tropospheric and Stratospheric Climatologies

Prepared by Dian Seidel (NOAA Air Resources Laboratory): January 2001

This data set includes climatological monthly statistics, based on radiosonde observations, of 30 characteristics of the tropical (30N-30S) tropopause, troposphere, and lower stratosphere (Seidel et al., 2001; Gaffen et al., 2000). Climatological means and standard deviations are based on data for 1961-1990. Time series of monthly statistics span 1961-1997. A list of the 30 variables can be found below. Click here for a map of radiosonde stations or here for further station details.

Data are available on the ftp server at /sparc/noaa_trop/. A FORTRAN routine extract.for is provided for extraction of data from either the gridded data file gridded.dat or the station climatology file station.dat. The file station.list contains a list of stations used in this analysis. Individual station time series files identified by station number and variable name are stored in subdirectory TIMESERS. These files have been concatenated into four tar files for easier downloads. Refer to the README file for further information.

Animations of Climatological Annual Cycles (Monthly Means) provided by Rebecca Ross

Level or LayerPressureHeightTempPotential TempVirtual TempSaturation Mixing RatioLapse Rate
Lapse-rate tropopauseLoopLoopLoopLoopN/ALoopN/A
Cold-point tropopauseLoopLoopLoopLoopN/ALoopN/A
100 hPa levelN/ALoopLoopLoopN/ALoopN/A
18 km levelLoopN/ALoopN/AN/AN/AN/A
Minimum saturation volume mixing ratioN/AN/AN/AN/AN/ALoopN/A
Balloon burst levelLoopLoopN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
Freezing levelLoopLoopN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
500 hPa levelN/ALoopLoopLoopN/AN/AN/A
Surface levelLoopN/ALoopLoopN/AN/AN/A
Surface to tropopause layerN/AN/AN/AN/ALoopN/AN/A
850 hPa to 300 hPa layerN/AN/AN/AN/ALoopN/AN/A
850 hPa to 100 hPa layerN/AN/AN/AN/ALoopN/AN/A
Surface to 500 hPa layerN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/ALoop
Surface to 300 hPa layerN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/ALoop

Radiosonde Locations

Station Details

NameCountryId. No.Lat.Lon. (oE)Elev.PeriodOb. time (UTC)
AbidjanIvory Coast655785.25356.0771961-97both
Addis AbabaEthiopia634509.0038.7523621961-971200
AntananarivoMadagascar67083-18.8047.4812791967-97both
AntofagastaChile85442-23.42289.531141961-97both
Ascension Island61902-7.97345.60861961-97both
AtuonaFrench Polynesia91925-9.82220.99521968-970000
Bahrain4042726.2750.6251961-79both
BangkokThailand4845513.73100.55161961-97both
BauerfieldVanuatu91557-17.70168.30201972-970000
BelemBrazil82193-1.38311.52161968-971200
BelizeBelize7858317.53271.7051980-97both
BloemfonteinSouth Africa68424-28.4021.278501976-97both
BogotaColombia802224.70285.8525411965-97both
BrasiliaBrazil83378-15.86312.0710611966-97both
BroomeAustralia94203-17.95122.22121965-970000
BrownsvilleUSA7225025.92262.5371961-93both
Canton IslandKiribati91701-2.77188.2931961-920000
CayenneFrench Guiana814054.83307.6391964-971200
CharlevilleAustralia94510-26.42146.273051961-970000
Chi Chi JimaJapan4797127.08142.1881967-97both
Clark Air Force BasePhilippines9832715.18120.551461961-900000
Cocos Island96996-12.1896.8351961-970000
CuritibaBrazil83840-25.51310.839081965-97both
DahranSaudi Arabia4041626.2750.17231978-97both
DakarSenegal6164114.68342.57271961-97both
DarwinAustralia94120-12.43130.87291961-970000
Del RioUSA7226129.33259.123141961-93both
DoualaCameroon649104.029.70101964-97both
DurbanSouth Africa68588-29.9330.9581961-97both
Easter Island85469-27.15250.52411966-97both
Fort-DauphinMadagascar67197-25.0047.0081972-970000
FortalezaBrazil82397-3.72321.45191973-931200
FunafutiTuvalu91643-8.52179.2211973-970000
GilesAustralia94461-25.03128.305801961-970000
Guam9121713.55144.83871961-97both
HaoFrench Polynesia91944-18.10219.1031971-970000
HiloUSA9128519.73204.93101961-97both
HoniaraSolomon Islands91517-9.42159.97561961-970000
Howard Air Force BasePanama788068.98280.45161961-97both
Isla GuadalupeMexico7615128.87241.75231971-97both
Iwo JimaJapan4798124.78141.331061961-90both
JeddahSaudi Arabia4102421.6739.15101965-97both
Key WestUSA7220124.58278.30 1961-93both
Khamis MushaitSaudi Arabia4111418.3042.8020601978-97both
Kings ParkHong Kong4500422.32114.17661961-97both
KingstonJamaica7839717.90282.7211961-97both
KororPalau914087.33134.48301961-97both
Kota KinabaluMalaysia964715.93116.0531969-970000
KunmingChina5677825.02102.4318921961-97both
LihueUSA9116521.98200.65361961-97both
MajuroMarshall Islands913767.10171.4031961-97both
ManausBrazil82332-3.15300.02841967-971200
ManzanilloMexico7665419.07255.6731976-971200
MazatlanMexico7645823.18253.5841961-97both
MeridaMexico7664420.97270.4891961-97both
Midway Island9106628.22182.63131961-95both
MinamitorishimaJapan4799124.30153.9791963-97both
Naha/KagamizuJapan4793626.23127.68801961-97both
NairobiKenya63741-1.3036.7517981961-97both
NandiFiji91680-17.75177.43161961-970000
NiameyNiger6105213.482.172331961-97both
Norfolk Island94996-29.05167.931101961-970000
NoumeaNew Caledonia91592-22.30166.45691961-970000
Pago PagoAmerican Samoa91765-14.33189.2831966-97both
PapeeteFrench Polynesia91938-17.55210.3921966-970000
Port HedlandAustralia94312-20.38118.6261961-970000
Raoul IslandNew Zealand93997-29.25182.08361961-970000
RapaFrench Polynesia91958-27.61215.6711966-970000
Rio de JaneiroBrazil83746-22.81316.75421961-97both
San JoseCosta Rica7876210.00275.809201972-971200
San JuanPuerto Rico7852618.45293.9031961-97both
Sao PauloBrazil83780-23.62313.358021961-97both
SeawellBarbados7895413.07300.50471965-97both
Seychelles63985-4.6755.5231976-971200
Singapore486981.37103.98181961-97both
SongkhlaThailand485687.18100.6241961-97both
St. Helena Island61901-15.97354.304361977-971200
TamanrassetAlgeria6068022.785.5213781961-97both
TarawaCoral Sea Islands916101.35172.9321961-970000
TownsvilleAustralia94294-19.25146.7751961-970000
TrukMicronesia913347.47151.8531961-97both
Wake Island9124519.30166.6251961-97both
WindhoekSouth Africa/Namibia68110-22.5717.1017151961-85both

List of Variables

Short form nameVariable and units
sfc_pressurface pressure - hPa
sfc_tempsurface temperature - C
sfc_thetsurface potential temperature - K
500mb_ht500 hPa height - m
500mb_TT500 hPa temperature - C
500mb_TH500 hPa potential temperature - K
gamma500surface-500 hPa lapse rate - K/km
gamma300surface-300 hPa lapse rate - K/km
sfctrp_Tsurface-LRT virtual temperature - C
850300_T850 hPa-300 hPa virtual temperature - C
850100_T850 hPa-100 hPa virtual temperature - C
freeze_pfreezing level pressure - hPa
freeze_zfreezing level height - m
100_zzzz100 hPa height - m
100_temp100 hPa temperature - C
100_thet100 hPa potential temperature - K
100_smra100 hPa sat. volume mixing ratio - ppmv
lrt_zzzzlapse-rate tropopause height - m
lrt_preslapse-rate tropopause pressure - hPa
lrt_templapse-rate tropopause temperature - C
lrt_thetlapse-rate tropopause potential T - K
lrt_smralapse-rate tropopause sat. vmr - ppmv
cpt_prescold-point tropopause pressure - hPa
cpt_zzzzcold-point tropopause height - m
cpt_tempcold-point tropopause temperature - C
cpt_thetcold-point tropopause potential T - K
cpt_smracold-point tropopause sat. vmr - ppmv
min_smraminimum sat. volume mixing ratio - ppmv
18k_pres18 km pressure - hPa
18k_temp18 km temperature - C

 

References

Seidel, D. J., R. J. Ross, J. K. Angell and G. C. Reid (2001), Climatological characteristics of the tropical tropopause as revealed by radiosondes. J. Geophys. Res.106, 7857-7878, doi:10.1029/2000JD900837.

Gaffen, D. J., B. D. Santer, J. S. Boyle, J. R. Christy, N. E. Graham, and R. J. Ross (2000), Multi-decadal changes in the vertical temperature structure of the tropical troposphere. Science287, 1239-1241, doi:10.1126/science.287.5456.1242.